(Photo: Credits: NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory/Scientific Visualization Studio/Tom Bridgman, Lead Animator)
Coronal rain, like that shown in this movie from NASA's SDO in 2012, is sometimes observed after solar eruptions, when the intense heating associated with a solar flare abruptly cuts off after the eruption and the remaining plasma cools and falls back to the solar surface.
The average sunspot temperature reaches 3,500 degrees Celsius, although the average surface temperature of the Sun is 5,500 degrees Celsius.
The effects are expected to be as minimal as a G1 tornado, reports the Daily Star. But they could include power grid disruptions and interference with satellites.
Although this solar storm is minor, some scientists warn that a massive solar storm is a matter of "when, not if." This is because the Sun also produces solar flares that send radiation into space. Any of these solar flares can affect the Earth, but they are mostly harmless to our atmosphere.
The researchers explained to Express UK that a flare occurs when a vacuum forms in the equatorial part of the Sun's atmosphere, which ejects solar particles directly to Earth at 500 kilometers per second.
Solar flares, on the other hand, can be so strong that they destroy the Earth's infrastructure.
? The flash of a solar flare lights up our @NASASun telescope as jets of super-heated plasma bloom. But when they're triggered, where do flares come from? One "neat" point or many disconnected locations? A new sounding rocket mission aims to find out: https://t.co/nd4PhhjwDz pic.twitter.com/jL7y62tqn9— NASA (@NASA) September 26, 2019
What causes solar flares?
Plasma spatters have been detected on the Sun's surface, which is unusual for the Sun's surface, Express UK reports. They are also known as "sunspots," which are darkened areas on the surface of the star that are usually cooler than the yellow regions of the hot gaseous globe.
These sunspots are magnetic fields that block the development of heat, maintaining a maximum temperature of 3,500 degrees Celsius, compared to 5,500 degrees Celsius for the largest star in the system. Sunspots can also cause "solar flares," i.e., eruptions on the Sun's surface that are believed to be ejections from the star.
NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory satellites have observed this phenomenon. As noted in Dr. Tony Phillips' Space Weather blog, this is an "ejection" phenomenon. As noted in the blog, the sunspot appeared many days ago, which means it has been active since the last week of April.